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The yield potential of any crop is set by the climate and its day-to-day variation which we know as weather. As of July 11th, NOAA’s Climate Prediction Center (CPC) branch determined that an El Nino Advisory was warranted, indicating that an El Nino is currently ongoing. It operates and maintains numerical water resources analysis and forecast modeling and data assimilation systems in collaboration with National Weather Service (NWS) National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), 13 regional NWS River Forecast Centers, Federal water partners, academia and stakeholders. Since we have more-recent SST anomaly data available in Figure 17, we will only pay attention to the bottom panel. Figure 20 is a two-panel graphic, showing sea surface temperature anomalies from June 2019 on top and the change in SST anomalies from June 2018 to June 2019 on the bottom. In summary, we are currently in a weak El Nino environment, as per both sea surface temperatures and signals from the atmospheric pattern. In a positive PDO, sea surface temperatures along the coast in the Gulf of Alaska down to the coast of California are above normal, with positive SSTAs extending into the Equatorial Pacific. Keep the vehicle’s speed down.

There is also the perception that motorcycles and scooters require very little maintenance, although this depends on usage, road conditions, and speed. This is a device used to measure the speed of the wind. A windsock or an anemometer is used to measure the direction of the wind. This is not only a mechanism repair concern it is also a safety measure for the future use of this equipment. Hence, you can safely rely on the chart calculations and use it to determine the future course of action of your client. Instead of turning the heat up at all times, you can use an energy efficient humidifier to make a significant difference in the temperature. Vinyl window frames are made from PVC (polyvinyl chloride) which is the same material they use to make plumbing pipes and fittings. Figure 14, above, shows 500-millibar geopotential height anomalies over the Northern Hemisphere in the same years as outlined in Figures 12 and 13, as well as over the same three-month window.

The graphics below depict the correlations between the PDO and temperature (Figure 21) as well as between the PDO and precipitation (Figure 22) during the December-January-February window. The July 15th – July 21st OLR averages show enhanced convection broadly in the vicinity of Tahiti, with subsidence north of Darwin near Papua New Guinea as well as just northwest of Ecuador. Whereas surface winds showed a rather-convincing portrayal of La Nina conditions, upper-level winds actually seem more aligned with an El Nino, particularly given the westward winds along the Equatorial Pacific from about 160 degrees West longitude into Papua New Guinea. However, such below-normal anomalies don’t extend into the waters just west of Canada and into the shoreside Gulf of Alaska region. A ridge positioned over the Bering Sea is identified as the negative phase of the West Pacific Oscillation (WPO), which results in cooler than normal weather over the eastern two-thirds of the United States. In the event of a neutral-ENSO winter, it appears cooler than normal temperatures are more likely than warmer temperatures, with the coldest anomalies most likely to be maximized in the upper Midwest and northern Plains. You might draw out that those warmer than normal anomalies in the Equatorial Pacific during a -PDO kind of look like an El Nino.

The war might start at night, according to some interpretations. Please note the (admittedly) strange color scale, where negative (positive) OLR values are shaded in warm (cool) colors. That does not mean things have transitioned into a -PDO; as we found out earlier, SST anomalies are too messy to really determine a firm phase for right now. In general, precipitation anomalies are most likely to be negatively correlated to the PDO, with correlation values deeper than -0.5 in portions of Kentucky and southern Indiana. There are many reasons why Goa is a preferred destination. Also, weather can change rapidly and unpredictably, which is why it’s “forecasting” and “predictions”. Also, there are many Artificial Intelligence or Machine Learning companies providing training in machine learning using python. There are a number of ocean-based oscillations that are highly relevant to seasonal forecasting, and one could argue that the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) is the second-most-important for North America, after ENSO.

However, the official source for what state the ENSO phenomenon is in is the National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). This solution is anticipated by the NOAA as well, with their most recent El Nino Advisory cautioning that a decline to neutral-ENSO conditions was expected in coming months, and was likely to persist into the fall and winter months. Figure 17: Recent SST Anomalies over the entire globe. Instead, it just seems like a really messy amalgamation of SST anomalies. Instead, the trend has been for SST anomalies to go away from a comfortably-positive PDO state into at least a non-existent state, as evidenced by the -0.00 figure in the PDO index. To try and get a sense for it, Figure 18 shows surface vector wind anomalies from June 1st through July 21st in the northern Pacific. To try and find more-concrete evidence, Figure 10 takes a look at outgoing longwave radiation (OLR).